X-Press Event Flow

Round-Up of Events So Far
  • 19/ 05/ 2021 – The ship was at an anchorage 9.5 nm (nautical miles) off Colombo Harbour.
  • 20/ 05/ 2021 – SL Navy and Sri Lanka Ports Authority (SLPA) are on board to inspect it.
A fire is caused by a chemical reaction due to alleged bad packaging of cargo.
A distress call was sent by the ship in the afternoon.
  • 21/ 05/ 2021 – Vessel states that all precautionary steps were taken to contain the fire.
  • 22/ 05/ 2021 – Marine Environment Protection Authority (MEPA) instructs the vessel to move out of SL waters immediately.
  • 24/ 05/ 2021 -National Building Research Organization (NBRO) launches an investigation on air pollution.
Experts from the Netherlands and Belgium are on board the ship to inspect.
  • 25/ 05/ 2021 – An explosion was reported in the morning. Crew members are evacuated.
Freight containers are falling off the ship. Seven such containers are submerged, while one washed ashore.
Ocean currents and strong winds are escalating the fire.
An operation is underway to move the vessel 50 nm away.
SL is preparing for a Tier II oil spill.
MEPA warns not to touch the washed-up debris.
  • 27/ 05/ 2021 – Eight people are arrested for collecting debris.
MEPA warns of allergies for those who came into contact with the debris.
Debris is seen along Rapungoda, Seththapaduwa in Negombo.
Emergency Oil Spill Management Plan in place. Chemical dispersants and oil collecting booms readied.
Another explosion is likely and the vessel could sink.
  • 28/ 05/ 2021 -National Aquatic Resources Research and Development Agency (NARA) is leading teams to assess damage.
MEPA is hoping to have an interim claim to cover the damages.
  • 29/ 05/ 2021 -Salvage operations are being led by the Dutch company SMIT, which has sent specialist fire-fighting tugs.
  • 30/ 05/ 2021 – Police are to question Captain and crew of MV X-Press Pearl.
Reports suggest that INTERPOL had warned about the vessel. Pakistan, Bangladesh and India had been apprised on this.
  • 31/ 05/ 2021 – There are fears that this vessel was carrying dangerous mercury, arsenic and lead. According to reports most of the cargo including 25 tons of nitric acid, sodium hydroxide, lubricants and other chemicals, are said to have been destroyed in the fire. It is also stated that the crew had been aware of this since May 11, but had not informed the Harbour authorities.
CID begins questioning X-PRESS PEARL Captain & Engineers.
Non-stop firefighting efforts have reduced smoke density and the fire has been localised to a small area near the aft section of MV X-Press Pearl.
  • 01/ 06/ 2021 – A special meeting was held at the Presidential Secretariat and it was decided to tow the ship away to deep sea as a risk of sinking was present.
The President instructed the Chairperson of the Marine Environment Protection Authority to issue an immediate order to take the ship into the deep sea.
Fire is finally extinguished. Dutch salvage company SMIT boarded the MV X-Press Pearl and reported massive flooding of the engine rooms.
Stern of the 186-metre (610-feet) long container carrier had gone down by about a meter because of the flooding.
Twenty eight containers of plastic raw material had also been on board the ship.
Colombo Magistrate’s Court issues an order preventing the Captain, Chief Engineer, and the Deputy Chief Engineer of the container ship MV X-Press Pearl from leaving Sri Lanka.
Statements of X-PRESS PEARL crew are to be presented before AG.
  • 02/ 06/ 2021 – The private salvage team had started to tow the ship to deep sea as instructed by the President.
MV X-Press Pearl has started to sink this morning, according to the Navy. Therefore, towing is suspended.
MEPA states that measures are underway to protect the marine environment if the ship sinks.
X-Press Pearl Incident Information Centre states that the ship’s aft portion is sitting on the seabed at a depth of about 21 meters, and the forward section is settling down slowly. Salvors remain on scene supported by the Sri Lankan Navy and the Indian Coast Guard off the Port of Colombo.
Sri Lanka is yet to submit claims to obtain compensation from the owners of the ship. Sri Lanka is preparing to counter an oil spill.
NARA says that the pH value in Sri Lankan waters has not changed.
Central Environmental Authority, with other bodies, is cleaning the debris that had washed up on the shores of 05 districts.
All fishing activities in the sea areas extending from Panadura to Negombo via Colombo are suspended with immediate effect. Vessels cannot enter the Negombo Lagoon.

  • 03/ 06/ 2021 – CEO Shmuel Yoskovitz of vessel operator apologises for impact of sunken container ship off Sri Lanka coast. Some excerpts of the interview with CNA:
    • “… container was first loaded on the ship on May 10 at the Jebel Ali port in Dubai.
    • “It was discovered leaking while alongside Hamad, which is a port in Qatar. When it was detected, we asked to discharge it. The port authorities did not allow it since they had no manpower or the equipment readily available to discharge,” he said.
    • “Afterwards, the vessel sailed into Hazira, a port in India, where we requested the Hazira port to allow us to discharge the container. Again it was rejected, more or less for the same reasons as it was in Hamad,” he said.
    • The X-Press Pearl then arrived in Sri Lankan waters on May 19. Smoke was detected the next morning.”
    • “… we load containers that are signed and sealed and we don’t open them. We are dependent on the declaration and the professionality of our shippers that they will pack the containers correctly and that they will declare them correctly.”

Image Credits: Daily Mirror

A search operation will be carried out to locate the Voyage Data Recorder (VDR) of the MV X-Press Pearl ship. VDR will be used to determine conversations the ship captain had with others before and when the fire on the ship erupted. Oil was not pumped out of the ship as soon as the fire broke out, because the conditions at the time, including the weather, prevented a ship-to-ship oil transfer, according to Captain Nirmal Silva.
Discussions underway with the salvors and other parties for removing the wreck and a detailed assessment is to be done.
Carcass of a turtle washes up on the Unawatuna Beach.
  • 04/ 06/ 2021 – No oil spill detected so far.
    • The ship’s aft portion is sitting on the seabed at a depth of about 21 meters, and the forward section continues to settle down slowly. Navy divers attempted to inspect the vessel under the direction of salvors but were forced to resurface due to poor visibility.
    • Owners of the ship had agreed to make an interim payment in addition to support for beach clearance work.
  • Sri Lanka Navy facilitated government officials conducting investigations including the Criminal Investigations Department to obtain seawater samples, conduct on-site monitoring and investigate the impact on the marine environment due to the ship’s fire.
  • A Fundamental Rights application was filed with the Supreme Court of Sri Lanka by Center for Environmental Justice, its Executive Director Hemantha Vithanage, and several fishermen.
  • 05/  06/ 2021 – President seeks British assistance to assess environmental damage caused.
  • 06/ 06/ 2021 – Over 10 turtles, dolphins, seabirds, and several fish found dead after MV X-Press Pearl disaster.
    • Marine experts from the Merchant Shipping Secretariat with the assistance of the Sri Lanka Navy, have recovered the VDR commonly known as the “Ship’s Black Box.”
  • 07/ 06/ 2021 – Dead marine life continues to wash up on SL shores. Here is the list.
    • Dolphin (fully grown) – Wadduwa
    • Whale (young) – Kosgoda
    • Several more dead sea turtles.
    • The Minister of Justice says that 05-sub-committees are working on the process of seeking compensation.
    • It is opined that ‘fumes from the burning X-Press Pearl have a direct impact on species in Sri Lanka’s central hill where the island’s most valuable rain forests are located.’
As Newsfirst reports –
  • Captain and crew of the X-Press Pearl Container Ship were aware of the nitric acid leak from one of the containers 10 days before a fire broke out onboard the vessel.
  • Captain had informed the Sri Lankan agent of the operator/owner of the X-Press Pearl about the leak via email.
  • Local agent had deleted the mail sent by the ship’s captain informing them about the nitric acid leak.
  • Local Agent on the 19th of May had informed the Colombo Harbour to allow the vessel to enter the Colombo Harbour as the vessel is in an unsafe and dangerous position.
  • Government Analyst to provide the Criminal Investigations Department with a report on the recordings and details retrieved from the Voyage Data Recorder.
  • Commander of the Navy to provide security to the X-Press Pearl wreck.
  • 08/ 06/ 2021 –
  • 09/ 06/ 2021 – ‘The 1,075 tonnes of waste collected from the shores are being stored in 43 containers to be used as evidence in discussions with the insurers.’
    • ‘The material packed into the containers also contains sea sand and it is not clear what the net volume of debris is.’
    • It is stated that 5 sub-committees are appointed; ‘an environment sub-committee, a fishery sub-committee, a tourism sub-committee, a marine sub-committee and a legal sub-committee.’
  • 10/ 06/ 2021 – In response to the foreign news agencies alleging that there is a visible oil spill according to satellite images, ship operators state that there is no confirmed oil spill.
    • Sri Lanka denies that there is an oil spill.
    • Prof. Charitha Pattiarachchi comments that, ‘there is no oil but there is discoloration of water in the vicinity of the ship which is being moved away from the currents from the ship.’
    • ‘However, Sri Lanka’s Minister of Environment said teams were dispatched to the sea area to collect samples for tests.’
  • 11/ 06/ 2021 – ‘The United States, through the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), is providing $100,000 in immediate assistance to support response efforts to the devastating Sri Lanka cargo ship fire.’
    • ‘The assistance will deliver immediate support to families whose livelihoods were affected by this emergency and expand ongoing support for response coordination and management.’
  • 12/ 06/ 2021 – Sri Lanka is seeking an interim claim of $40m from the operator of X-Press Pearl.
    • MEPA is following a three-step strategy to address the X-Press Pearl disaster.
      • 01. Accelerated & Proper Clean-up
      • 02. Environmentally Responsible Disposal of Waste
      • 03. Restoration as per the damage assessment.
    • A preliminary claim of USD 40 million was made for the damage caused by the X-Press Pearl.
    • A team of officers from the Criminal Investigations Department (CID) are scheduled to inspect and investigate whether there is an oil leak.
  • 13/ 06/ 2021 – ‘A grey sheen continues to be observed emanating from the vessel. Discolouration of the sea has been apparent since the vessel’s stern became submerged, and the remnants of the cargo in the 1486 containers that were onboard were exposed to water.’
    • ‘A criminal investigation by Sri Lanka Police (has) revealed that the fire on board the X-Press Pearl container ship was caused due to negligence.’
  • 14/ 06/ 2021 – The Captain of the MV X-Press Pearl was arrested by the CID. He is a Russian national.
    • The Captain was later released by the Colombo High Court on a personal bond of Rs. 2 million. He is banned from leaving the country and passport is impounded.
    • More than 31 dead sea turtles and 05 dolphins washed up on Sri Lankan shores. The Secretary of the Ministry of Wildlife states that legal action will be taken against the operators of the X-Press Pearl, under the provisions of the Fauna and Flora Protection Ordinance.
    • Sri Lanka will be obtaining expertise from international organizations and 03 experts from the United Nations will be arriving in Sri Lanka.
    • ‘[O]n the advice of the Attorney General Sri Lankan authorities will reach agreements with the operators of the X-Press Pearl and the P&I Club with regard to removing hazardous material from the wreck and towing the vessel into international waters.’
    • One sub-committee is tasked with evaluating and finalizing the international offers to clean up the wreck and engage in other related activities.
    • Sri Lanka’s Ports & Shipping Minister has assured that the X-Press Pearl wreck has not obstructed the shipping lanes leading to the Colombo Harbour. The wreck poses no threat to the outer harbour as well.
    • It is stated that had the vessel given more information, the Sri Lanka Ports Authority could have made a different approach with regard to the incident and the situation could have been controlled.
  • 15/ 06/ 2021 – The case was heard at The Hultsdorf Magistrate’s Court. The Deputy Solicitor General stated that the local agent for the MV X-press Pearl had not complied with an order issued by the court to allow access to the communications database of the company.
Newsfirst reports as follows:
  • Managing Director and Chairman of Sea Consortium Lanka (Local Agent) Arjuna Hettiarachchi was ordered to make a statement to the CID,he had failed to do so.
  • Anura Meddagoda PC appearing for the Managing Director and Chairman of Sea Consortium Lanka stated that his client would appear at the CID at 9.30 AM on Wednesday (16), and the CID was informed about it in writing. The communications database information sought by the CID will be handed over to the authorities on Wednesday (16).
  • On behalf of Sea Consortium Lanka Pvt. Ltd. Sarath Jayamanne PC submitted in court that the recordings of the communications between the Captain of the ship, and Sri Lankan authorities are also stored at the communications center of the Ports Authority and, those recordings have not been produced in court nor cited in any B-reports.
  • On behalf of the Captain of the sunken MV X-press Pearl in the High Court yesterday Sarath Jayamanne PC said that officials of the Sri Lanka Ports Authority (SLPA) had allowed the fire to spread on board the ship without controlling it, in the hope of receiving compensation for the damages. The captain of the ship had informed the authorities of the situation of the ship in advance. He also states that the ‘Harbourmaster is empowered under the Sri Lanka Ports Authority Act to direct the ship to be taken to the high seas, but no action was taken between the 20th and the 25th of May.’
  • However, ‘Deputy Solicitor General Madhawa Tennakoon claimed that the Captain and his crew had hidden the acid leakage in a container aboard the vessel from the Sri Lankan authorities when entering the country’s territorial waters.’
  • The Attorney General has advised the Criminal Investigations Department to arrest the local agent for the X-Press Pearl container ship and produce him in court.
  • Detectives have recorded statements from medical examiners who conducted the autopsy on the dead sea turtles and dolphins.
  • 16/ 06/ 2021 –  Norwegian Coastal Administration has offered remote assistance in responding to marine pollution caused by X-press Pearl.
    • Local agent of the X-Press Feeders’ agency, Arjuna Hettiarachchi has been arrested by the CID.  It is stated that it has been revealed that the local company had acted negligently in respect with the incident.
    • He was released on a cash bail of Rs. 100,000/- and two surety bails of Rs. 01 Million each. In addition, he was barred from traveling overseas and was ordered to surrender his passport to the court.
    • The Fisheries Committee discussions will be held on the relief that will be provided to the fishermen in the future.
    • The fishing activities in the seas off Wadduwa to Negombo have been suspended following the MV X-PRESS PEARL disaster. Nevertheless,  fishermen in Negombo were permitted to engage in fishing activities within the Negombo Lagoon area.
    • The provision of compensation to fishermen affected (Rs. 5000 for each fishing family) by the MV X-PRESS PEARL commenced on Tuesday (Jun. 15).
    • Investigations have revealed that there was no oil leak when the fire was spreading onboard the X-Press Pearl container ship. A grey sheen continues to be observed emanating from the vessel, and discoloration of the sea in and around the wreck remains.
  • 17/ 06/ 2021 – ‘The removal of the X-Press Pearl’s wreck from the seabed off Colombo, Sri Lanka, will start once the South Westerly Monsoon season ends, operator of the ill-fated vessel said.The period in question covers the month of June until September.’
    • ‘Representatives of ITOPF and Oil Spill Response are monitoring updates from the scene and are ready to deploy in case of any reported spill.’
    • ‘In addition, the feeder operator said that navigational warning lights and markers on the wreck for the safety of other vessels are set to be installed.’
    • X-Press Feeders, operators of the container ship ‘X-Press Pearl’, confirm that the wreck is now wholly sitting on the sea bed at a depth of 21 meters.
    • Three experts from the United Nations (funded by European Union) have arrived in Sri Lanka to assess the damage caused to Sri Lanka’s Marine Environment following the X-PRESS PEARL container ship disaster.
    • NARA has also commenced studies regarding the damages to the marine eco-system and marine life and tests the quality of water.
  • 18/ 06/ 2021 –
  • 19/ 06/ 2021 – Sri Lanka links some turtle deaths to X-Press Pearl fire and the death of a whale is probed. Experts comment that provisionally two causes of deaths can be identified. ‘One is death by burnt injuries due to the heat secondly … death due to the chemicals.’
    • Sri Lanka Ports Authority(ALPA) Chairman Retired General Daya Rathnayake has been appointed as Industry Ministry Secretary.
  • 20/ 06/ 2021
  • 21/ 06/ 2021 – ‘… [a]ccording to the experts a major portion of the nurdles may have been destroyed by the fire, however, the rest (around 40%) may have washed ashore.’
    • Owners of the X-Press Pearl have not positively responded to remove the wreck still.
    • Capt. Nihal Keppetipola is appointed as the new SLPA Chairman.
  • 22/ 06/ 2021 – Time period given for submission of claims for the damage caused due to the fire on MV X-Press Pearl has been extended by two weeks, till 02nd of July 2021.
    • ‘The three experts from the UN include Dr. Stephane Le Floch from the France National Oil Response and Research Centre (CEDRE) who is a specialist in oil spill response and contingency planning, Dr. Camille La Croix also from CEDRE specializing in marine litter pollution and Luigi Alcaro from the Italian National Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA, Environment Ministry) who specializes in the environmental impact assessment of oil and hazardous noxious substance spills in the marine environment.’
    • ‘The team is led by Hassan Partow from the UNEPs Resilience to Disasters and Conflicts Global Support Branch (Ecosystems Division).’
  • 23/ 06/ 2021
  • 24/ 06/ 2021
  • 25/ 06/ 2021 – It is opined that ‘Sri Lanka doesn’t have baseline information to compare how the marine environment was like before the incident happened. Information on ocean currents, the pattern and other details are vital to study the impact of the damage.’
    • ‘Wildlife and Forest Conservation Minister C.B. Ratnayake on Monday said that according to the post-mortem reports, the cause of death for turtles was a respiratory issue due to the chemical that was mixed to the water.’
    • Samples would be sent to a laboratory in Singapore.
    • Indian Naval Ship Sarvekshak arrived at the Colombo Port to survey the X-Press Pearl wreckage area for the safety of navigation.
  • 26/ 06/ 2021 – The owners of the X-Press Pearl ship have agreed to pay a compensation of Rs. 720 million to the fishing community affected by the fire that erupted in the vessel. This is the initial payment of the First Interim Damage Claim of $40 Million made by the AG for the period 20th of May – 03rd of June, 2021.
  • 27/ 06/ 2021 – Sri Lanka to seek Singapore assistance on ‘measures to reduce the risk of pollution from the wreck & also the preparation of a Marine Pollution Response Plan and also the mobilizing of appropriate oil spill response equipment to counter any potential bunker oil spill.’ The possibility of initiating a survey of the remaining cargos on board and also the location of the derelict containers on the sea bed to prevent any threat of pollution has also been discussed.
    • ‘Caretakers salvors continue to observe a grey sheen emanating from the wreck; however, it has lessened over the last week.’
    • ‘A specialized salvors tug has arrived from Malaysia to take over the caretaker duties and drones have been flown in and will be deployed onsite to help with the ongoing monitoring activities.’
  • 28/ 06/ 2021 –
  • 29/ 06/ 2021 – Indian Navy ship Sarvekshak detected 54 objects during 208 miles of Side Scan Sonar survey.
    • ‘MV X-PRESS PEARL disaster was recognized by the United Nations (UN) as an instance where the largest amount of plastic was dumped into the ocean at one given time.’
    • Marine creatures including 150 dead Sea Turtles and 15 Dolphins have washed ashore along the coastal line of Sri Lanka.
    • According to the CEA, the containers are loaded with 1,034 tons of plastic pallets and the collected debris is stored in 44 containers in the Wattala.
  • 30/ 06/ 2021 – ‘An expert committee appointed by the Marine Environment Protection Authority has revealed the death of sea turtles and other fish reported in recent weeks was due to environmental damage caused by the burning of the X-Press Pearl vessel.’
Daily Mirror reports as follows:
  • 176 sea turtles, 20 dolphins and four whales have died so far.
    • Investigations are being carried out into the deaths of sea creatures through a number of institutions including NARA and the Institute of Industrial Technology.
    • Sarath Jayamanne PC appearing for Sea Consortium Lanka (Pvt) Ltd, the Local Agent of X-Press Pearl vessel stated that the radio recording machine in the Harbor Master’s office contained all the telephone messages given by the captain of the ship that caught fire. Although he had requested the CID to check the messages contained in the machine from the beginning, the CID had not paid any attention to it.
    • However, the report submitted by the CID to the court has revealed that there was a technical fault in the radio recording machine.
  • 01/ 07/ 2021 – ‘Dr. Ajantha Perera and a social activist today filed a Fundamental Rights petition in the Supreme Court seeking an order directing the authorities to set up a Restoration and Conservation Fund for the environmental degradation due to the pollution caused by the X-Press Pearl vessel.’
    • The petitioners are seeking an order to allocate not less than 70% of all compensation received, for the restoration of the oceanic environment and an order to take immediate steps for the prosecution of all those responsible.
    • They also point out that the failure of the respondents to exercise their statutory duties and lack of due diligence have violated petitioners’ and similar circumstanced citizens Fundamental rights enshrined in the Constitution and is a breach of the principle of public trust.
    • An Assistant General Manager attached to the Sea Consortium Lanka (Pvt) Ltd, the Local Agent of X-Press Pearl vessel was ordered to be released on bail. The Court further issued an order preventing the suspect from leaving the country. The passport of the suspect was ordered to be kept under court custody.
  • 02/ 07/ 2021
  • 03/ 07/ 2021 – ‘Indian Navy Ship Sarveskshak, which was deployed to help Sri Lanka find containers and debris that fell off the burnt out container vessel X-Press Pearl had found 54 pieces of underwater debris and a shipwreck.’
  • 04/ 07/ 2021 – Sri Lanka says it has informed the relevant parties to remove the X-Press Pearl wreck from Sri Lankan waters without delay.
  • 05/ 07/ 2021 –
  • 06/ 07/ 2021 – ‘The Government has appointed a committee to compensate the affected parties other than the fishing sector who had lost their livelihoods after the fire on MV X-Press Pearl.’ The Committee would be under the chairmanship of the Secretary to the Ministry of Fisheries.
  • 07/ 07/ 2021 – Sri Lanka has received the interim claim of Rs. 720 million and according to the Ministry of Justice, it was deposited to the Treasury Account.

[1] ‘Sri Lanka forces respond to the distress call of the container ship ‘X-Press Pearl’’ (hirunews, 22 May 2021) <https://www.hirunews.lk/goldfmnews/272085/sri-lanka-forces-respond-to-the-distress-call-of-the-container-ship-x-press-pearl > accessed 31 May 2021.

[2] Mike Schuler, ‘Cargo Fire Erupts on Containership Off Sri Lanka’ (gCaptain, 21 May 2021) <https://gcaptain.com/cargo-fire-erupts-on-containership-off-sri-lanka/ > accessed 31 May 2021.

[3] Pavani Hapuarachchi, ‘‘X-PRESS PEARL’ instructed to move out of SL waters: MEPA’ (Newsfirst, 22 May 2021) <https://www.newsfirst.lk/2021/05/22/x-press-pearl-instructed-to-move-out-of-sl-waters-mepa/> accessed 31 May 2021.

[4] Pavani Hapuarachchi , ‘Explosion aboard MV X-PRESS PEARL; crew evacuated’ (Newsfirst, 25 May 2021) <https://www.newsfirst.lk/2021/05/25/explosion-aboard-mv-x-press-pearl-crew-evacuated/> accessed 31 May 2021.

[5] Pavani Hapuarachchi, ‘08 Freight Containers from X-PRESS PEARL fall into Sri Lankan waters’ (Newsfirst, 25 May 2021) <https://www.newsfirst.lk/2021/05/25/08-freight-containers-from-x-press-pearl-fall-into-sri-lankan-waters/ > accessed 31 May 2021.

[6] Mahadiya Hamza, ‘Blazing X-press Pearl off Sri Lanka triggers Tier II oil spill warning’ (economynext, 25 May 2021) <https://economynext.com/blazing-x-press-pearl-off-sri-lanka-triggers-tier-ii-oil-spill-warning-82380/ > accessed 31 May 2021.

[7] ‘INTERPOL had warned about fire-gutted ship?’ (Sri Lanka Mirror, 30 May 2021) <https://www.srilankamirror.com/news/23069-interpol-had-warned-about-fire-gutted-ship> accessed 31 May 2021.

[8] Susitha Fernando, ‘Disaster of the MV X-Press Pearl vessel: Could this be the death of Sri Lankan sea?’ (Daily Mirror, 31 May 2021) <http://www.dailymirror.lk/opinion/Disaster-of-the-MV-X-Press-Pearl-vessel-Could-this-be-the-death-of-Sri-Lankan-sea/172-213064> accessed 31 May 2021.

[9] Zulfick Farzan, ‘CID grills X-PRESS PEARL Captain & Engineers’ (Newsfirst, 31 May 2021) <https://www.newsfirst.lk/2021/05/31/cid-grills-x-press-pearl-captain-engineers/> accessed 01 June 2021.

[10] ‘Non-stop firefighting efforts on MV X-Press Pearl yield positive results: India’ (Daily Mirror, 31 May 2021) <http://www.dailymirror.lk/breaking_news/Non-stop-firefighting-efforts-on-MV-X-Press-Pearl-yield-positive-results-India/108-213070> accessed 02 June 2021.

[11] ‘Prez orders to take the X-Express Pearl ship into deep-sea immediately’ (Daily Mirror, 01 June 2021) <http://www.dailymirror.lk/breaking_news/Prez-orders-to-take-the-X-Express-Pearl-ship-into-deep-sea-immediately/108-213205> accessed 02 June 2021.

[12] ‘X-Press Pearl ship fire extinguished after a 13-day international operation: Navy’ (Daily Mirror, 01 June 2021) <http://www.dailymirror.lk/breaking_news/X-Press-Pearl-ship-fire-extinguished-after-a-13-day-international-operation-Navy/108-213207> accessed 02 June 2021.

[13] ibid.

[14] Amani Nilar, ‘Colombo MC prevents captain, two others of MV X-Press Pearl from leaving SL’ (Ceylon Today, 01 June 2021) <https://ceylontoday.lk/news/order-issued-preventing-captain-two-others-of-mv-x-press-pearl-from-leaving-sl> accessed 02 June 2021.

[15] Rebecca Pavey, ‘Statements of X-PRESS PEARL crew to be presented before AG’ (Ceylon Today, 01 June 2021) <https://ceylontoday.lk/news/statements-of-x-press-pearl-crew-to-be-presented-before-ag> accessed 02 June 2021.

[16] ‘MV X-Press Pearl ship has started to sink: Navy’ (Daily Mirror, 02 June 2021) <http://www.dailymirror.lk/breaking_news/MV-X-Press-Pearl-ship-has-started-to-sink-Navy/108-213261> accessed 02 June 2021.

[17] Zulfick Farzan, ‘Towing of X-PRESS PEARL suspended as stern hits the ocean floor’ (Newsfirst, 02, June 2021) <https://www.newsfirst.lk/2021/06/02/towing-of-x-press-pearl-suspended-as-stern-hits-the-ocean-floor/> accessed 03 June 2021.

[18] X-Press Pearl – Incident Information Centre, ‘Latest Press Releases’ (MTI Network Incident Information Centre, as updated) <https://www.x-presspearl-informationcentre.com/> accessed 03 June 2021.

[19] Zulfick Farzan, ‘Ocean pH value unchanged following X-PRESS PEARL disaster’ (Newsfirst, 02 June 2021) <https://www.newsfirst.lk/2021/06/02/ocean-ph-value-unchanged-following-x-press-pearl-disaster/> accessed 03 June 2021.

[20] Sheain Fernandopulle, ‘Fishing activities from Panadura to Negombo suspended’ (Daily Mirror, 02 June 2021) <http://www.dailymirror.lk/breaking_news/Fishing-activities-from-Panadura-to-Negombo-suspended/108-213276> accessed 03 June 2021.

 

[21] ‘CEO of vessel operator apologises for impact of sunken container ship off Sri Lanka coast’ (Daily Mirror, 03 June 2021) <http://www.dailymirror.lk/breaking_news/CEO-of-vessel-operator-apologises-for-impact-of-sunken-container-ship-off-Sri-Lanka-coast/108-213375> accessed 04 June 2021.

[22] Easwaran Rutnam, ‘Search to begin for data recorder of MV X-Press Pearl’ (Daily Mirror, 03 June 2021) <http://www.dailymirror.lk/breaking_news/Search-to-begin-for-data-recorder-of-MV-X-Press-Pearl/108-213361> accessed 04 June 2021.

[23] Zulfick Farzan, ‘No signs of debris and no reports of oil pollution; X-Press Pearl operator’ (Newsfirst, 04 June 2021) <https://www.newsfirst.lk/2021/06/04/no-signs-of-debris-and-no-reports-of-oil-pollution-x-press-pearl-operator/> accessed 04 June 2021.

[24] Kelum Bandara, ‘Ship owners agree to make interim payment for damages’ (Daily Mirror, 04 June 2021) <http://www.dailymirror.lk/breaking_news/Ship-owners-agree-to-make-interim-payment-for-damages/108-213396> accessed 04 June 2021.

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